Function of Isa 61,1-2 and 58,6 in Luke’s programmatic passage (Lk 4,16-30)

Luke 4,16-30 marks the beginning of Jesus’ ministry in Galilee. With this pericope Luke maps out the content of the salvific work of Jesus. The texts of Isa 61,1-2 and 58,6 cited here reflect the Jubilee year amnesty for the oppressed. These quotations foreshadow what Jesus is about to accomplish. They are used to portray Jesus as the anointed prophet. With these citations Luke indicates the scope of Jesus’ mission. The citation of Luke (vv.18-19 from LXX) agrees with the LXX against the MT. In the LXX the text reads „the Spirit of the Lord” while the MT reads „the Spirit of JHWH” (v.18). In the same vein, v.18 of the LXX reads τυφλοῖς, while the MT has another word. Luke changes the LXX in the verb κηρύξαι probably because of the importance of this word in the missionary language of the early Church. All these are signs that Luke is using different sources. He is using Mark 6,1-6a, the Q, the LXX and tradition. However, he is not using them blindly, rather he has welded various traditions together to compose his narrative. He internalises, modifies, adapts and uses his sources in a creative way to put across his message.

In this article we would like to consider the function of the quotation Isa 61,1-2; 58,6 in Lk 4,16-30. In pursuing this goal we will analyse the historical background and Sitz im Leben of the programmatic passage of Luke’s gospel. Than we shall explain and give the interpretation of the quotation itself. These steps will bring us to the conclusion about the function of this quotation in the entire passage.

Historical facts surrounding Lk 4,16-30

In the babylonian cycle of reading, the entire torah was finished by the end of each year. In this case the torah was divided into 54 parashot. In Palestine from the beginning of the second century C.E until the fifth century and even later other system of reading was used. Some Jews had the torah finished in three years and some others in three and a half years. [1] It is not certain that such an accepted pattern of reading was followed in the early or middle years of the first century, since most of the evidence cited to support this comes from a later period.[2] Torah was divided into 154 sedarim ‘portions’, each seder ‘the day’s portion’ consisting of about 21 verses. After the reading of the seder, the haphþara ‘a portion from the prophets’, usually of about 10 verses, followed. From the discoveries made at Geniza in Cairo, it was seen that a certain portion of seder was usually accompanied by a certain haphþara.[3] For instance, Exod 1,1-2,25 was often followed by Isa 27,6-13 or Isa 27,6-28. At the end of the readings, Psalms were sung. Then the homilist cites a verse of introduction called petitha normally taken from the Prophets or from the Writings. The aim of the homilist was to establish a concrete link between the torah and haphþara just read and then their message for the audience – the unity of the Scripture and its message. Thus the seder, the haphþara and the sermon accompanied by petitha formed the pivot of the synagogue service.

In the same Cairo findings, it was discovered that on Yom Kippur ‘the day of repentance’ Isa 57, 15-58,14 was the particular reading. But when this day coincided with the beginning of the Jubilee year Rosh ha-Shanah, Lev 25 followed by Isa 61 were also read. This throws some light on why Luke has a me,lange of Isa 58 and 61 in this pericope. The discovery at Qumran of the Melchizedek fragment (11Qmelch) shed a great light on the importance of Isa 61. Part of the information contained in the  Geniza document is that, on the day of Sabbath when Gen 35[4] was read, it was accompanied by Isa 61. The Palestinian

Targum (Neofiti) on Gen 35 confirms the above information. A Qumran document (1QH18, 14-15) also contains this information. [5] The homily on such a Sabbath will go this way: “God healed Abraham and consoled Jacob. He blessed and consoled the afflicted. Everyone is called upon through the Prophet to do the same”.[6] Such practice of the reading of the torah, the Prophets and Writings still form the bedrock of synagogue service both within and outside Palestine in the NT times (Acts 15,21) and even until today. The above discussion furnishes us with some background regarding the reading of Isa 61 and 58 within synagogue service.

Isa 58 carries a message of reproach to the nation for failing in justice towards those living with them. Loosing the bonds of wickedness, undoing the thongs of the yoke, sending the oppressed into freedom and breaking every yoke is the sort of fast that is acceptable to God. So God proclaims that the type of fast he prefers is the one that gives a good treatment of the neighbour. Isa 61 is addressed to the exiles of Babylon to console and give them hope. Isa 61,1-3 gives the central message of Isa 60-62, which constitute the heart of Trito-Isaiah. During the Babylonian exile, the anonymous prophet of Deutero-Isaiah (Isa 40-54) prophesied liberation from captivity. Although this prophecy had been fulfilled, the returned remnant was facing a situation of poverty and oppression. In this time of frustration and misery the Trito-Isaiah announced anew God’s promise, which had not been completely fulfilled. He continued to address this promise as still valid.[7] The figure of Isa 61 brings a message of God’s deliverance to the exiles. This deliverance imagery is reminiscent of the jubilee year (Lev 25,8-17), when debts were cancelled and slaves set free. However, in Luke 4,16-30 the picture of forgiveness and spiritual liberation is the focus. This passage, therefore, should not be understood in the context of the Suffering Servant but in the context of an eschatological prophet (Luke 4,21).[8]

Sociological ambient of Lk 4,16-30

After the edict of Cyrus in 538 B.C an anonymous prophet addressed the prophecy of Trito-Isaiah to the post exilic community. It was a message of consolation and echoes the message of the second-Isaiah (40-55). The anonymous prophet of Trito-Isaiah addresses Zion personified directly, in the second person. He recalls the Promise of God and announces the rebuilding and restoration of ancient ruins. Israel’s humiliation will be turned into eternal joy (Isa 61,4.7-11).[9] This is the sociological ambient of the Isaian text used here.

The event of Luke 4,16-30, as noted above, takes place in the synagogue. There is an indication that Jesus went to synagogue regularly ‘as was his custom’.[10] Thus Jesus was a pious Jew but his piety differed from that of the synagogue officials, and his relation with them was often confrontational. The temple was the centre of Jewish worship as the Church is the centre of the Church’s activity (Acts 3-4; 13). After the destruction of the temple A.D 70, synagogue took the place of the temple. However, the usual temple sacrifice was not practised in the synagogue. There was only one temple in Jerusalem while synagogue could be established anywhere.

Our passage is the oldest known account of a synagogue service (Acts 13,14), although it offers no details.[11] It is the first of the six incidents dealing with Jesus’ activity on the Sabbath.[12] A synagogue service had various elements.[13] The entrance into the synagogue was followed by private prayer. Then the Jewish confession of the Shema‘[14] (Deut 6,4-9; cf. 11,13-21; Num 15,37-41) was recited. Prayers like the Tephillah[15] and the Shemoneh Esreh (the eighteen benedictions) were said. The centre of worship then began with the readings – Parasha (A portion of the torah) and then the Haphþara (A portion from the prophets). The readings were done with Aramaic paraphrase, which was the targumic rendering of the text (Neh 8,8-9; Acts 13,15; 15,27).[16] Marshall[17] notes that scholars argue on the existence of a fixed lectionary system in the first century and if there was, what form it took. Perhaps there was some freedom with regard to the prophetic readings.[18] After the readings, there was instruction on the passage followed by the Qaddish[19] prayer. This is followed by the final blessing. It is not clear, if Jesus did the reading on his own initiative or if he was called upon to do so. However, the action of the leader of the synagogue in Acts 13,15 as well as the context of Luke 4,16 strongly suggest that Jesus must have been invited to do the reading and to preach. After all he would have become famous as a preacher through his earlier ministry in Capharnaum (Luke 4,15). The president of the synagogue (archisynago/gos), who usually directed the worship, must have invited Jesus to perform this function. The synagogue servant helped and served at the worship.[20]

In our text Jesus did the reading and gave the preaching as well. The use of verb eu-ren (aor ind act 3rd sing from eu`ri,skw ‘to find, to discover’) indicates that this passage was found by Jesus.[21] Some sources like Megillah in the Mishnah, Tosefta and the Babylonian and Jerusalem Talmuds show signs that there might have been a fixed  triennial cycle for torah but such a cycle for the prophets is more difficult to prove.[22]

Some scholars have tried to tie this event to a specific year, suggesting that  AD 26/27 was a Jubilee year and that Jesus’ sermon came around this time.[23] Since  Jesus’ ministry began around AD 30 (Luke 3,1)[24] the above date is not tenable. This passage describes a typical synagogue worship in which Jesus participates actively. He reads and explains the Scriptures (Luke 24,27). The synagogue service, therefore, provides the socio-religious ambient that gave birth to this pericope.[25]

Quotation of Isa 61,1-2. 58,6 – explanation and interpretation

As the passage uses the language and style reminiscent of the earlier Suffering Servant passages (Isa 52-53), it was interpreted by the Church in terms of the Servant of Yahweh. Such interpretation was also evident at Qumran (11Qmelch Isa 52,7; 61,1). However, Luke 4,16-30 does not refer to the Suffering Servant, rather to Jesus as the anointed prophet who preaches good news and brings about spiritual release and deliverance to humanity. The focus is on the functions of this OT figure, which are now fulfilled in Jesus. Hence the identification here in Luke is not with the Suffering Servant.  ‘He has anointed’ refers back to Jesus’ baptism (Luke 3,21-22), which was not just prophetic but also regal. At Jesus’ baptism the texts of Isa 42,1 and Ps 2,7, an enthronement psalm, cited grounds this regal aspect. These two texts cited at Jesus’ baptism indicate his enthronement for his public ministry. Thus as mentioned Jesus is not only depicted as a prophet, he is even more. Anointing is the oiling of the body or parts of it by rubbing with grease or oil. Oil prevents inflammation and thus has a healing effect. Anointing for healing is to be distinguished from anointing as a legal action. As a legal action, the aim is to give the anointed the power, strength, majesty and authority. In this sense a king is anointed (1Sam 10,1; 2Sam 3,39). David is anointed king (1Sam 16,3.12; 2Sam 2,4.7; 5,3.17). In 1Sam 9,16; 10,1; 15,17 Saul is anointed king. Solomon is anointed a king (1Kgs 1,34.39.45). In a Qumran document (11Qmelch line 18), the bringer of good tidings of Isa 52,7 is ‘the anointed by the Spirit’. Also CD ii 12 mentions prophets as “anointed with the Spirit” (cf. CD vi 1 and 1QM xi 7). Thus by anointing one is invested with power and authority. The High priest is also anointed (1Chr 29,22; Lev 4,3.5.16; 6,15). By this act, the anointed is cleansed and consecrated.[26] Generally, prophets were regarded as anointed by the Spirit of the Lord (1Kgs 19,16 Elisha is anointed). Anointing of the prophets indicates that they have received the prophetic spirit, which enables them to speak with courage in the name of God. This signifies that they are authorised to announce the word of God. ָמַשׁח occurs 38x in the OT and when used as an independent noun, it is always in reference to a person. In the NT the verb χρίω occurs five times, three of which are in Luke-Acts (Luke 4,18; Acts 4,27; 10,38 Cf. Heb 1,9). Messiah refers to the Hebrew translation while Christ refers to the Greek translation. Bestowal and possession of the Spirit are bound to anointing. Isa 61,1 should be understood in this sense – Luke refers to Jesus reception of the Spirit concretely at his baptism (Luke 3,15-17.21-22 Cf. 1,35).[27] As one on whom the Spirit has been bestowed Jesus is „Christ” (Luke 2,11.26; 9,20; 20,41; 22,67; 23,2; 24,26). The Spirit descends on him at baptism (Luke 3,22). The Spirit leads Jesus into the desert (Luke 4,1). He propels Jesus to initiate his work (Luke 4,16).[28] The Spirit is associated with the whole of Jesus’ mission (Luke 4,1.14.18; 10,21). In Luke 4,18 the Spirit anoints him as the eschatological prophet, and so he preaches the good news to the poor and announces the favourable year of the Lord. He is empowered by God and led by the Spirit in his words and deeds. Luke also depicts Jesus as the Messiah. As prophet he proclaims release to captives (Isa 61,1b) and as Messiah he brings about this release (Isa 58,6). However, Jesus never declares himself Messiah during his ministry. The identification of himself as the Messiah comes about only at the end of his public ministry – after his resurrection. Also after the resurrection, Paul defines Jesus as the designated Son of God in power (Rom 1,3).

The anointing signals the beginning of his ministry. In Acts 1,8 the disciples are to wait for this anointing before they begin their own mission (Cf. Luke 24,49). Jesus is the eschatological prophet who prepares his people for the final judgement. But he is also the Messiah. He proclaims release and also brings it into practice. He is the one, designated by God for this ministry. The four infinitives in the Isaian citation map out what his work entails. Jesus comes to announce the good news to the poor, to proclaim liberty to captives, to give sight to the blind, to set at liberty the oppressed. If the longer text is read, he comes to heal the broken hearted. He comes to announce the acceptable year of the Lord. In a nutshell, he announces salvation and brings about salvation to the world. In fact, three out of the four infinitives, which map out the content of the work of Jesus, are on preaching the word – εὐαγγελίσασθαι πτωχοῖς, to preach good news to the poor, κηρύξαι αἰχμαλώτοις ἄφεσιν, to proclaim release to captives and to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord. Only one is on action – ἀποστεῖλαι τεθραυσμένους ἐν ἀφέσει, to set at liberty the oppressed. Mentioning things three times is a Lucan style for emphasis.[29]

Preaching good news to the poor is a prophetic role and fits well with Luke’s description of Jesus as prophet or teacher.[30] Etymologically, the term ‘prophet’ comes from the prefix ‘before’ and the verb ‘to say, to speak’. The primary sense is ‘to speak on behalf of someone, one who speaks in place of another’.[31] Hence a prophet is one who speaks on behalf of God. In a temporal sense, he is one who predicts the future. In the OT and the NT he is one who predicts by divine inspiration, one who speaks for God. In Luke 4,21 Jesus indicates that his activity is eschatological.[32] In him the prophecies of the OT have come to reality. Preaching the good news is reminiscent of Luke 3,18 and establishes a link between Jesus and his forerunner. It is significant that in the Sermon on the Mount the poor are the first to be mentioned (Luke 6,20). Also here in our text they are the first to be named. Luke gives special attention to the poor.[33] Etymologically „poor” is derived from ‘to be destitute, to lead the life of a beggar’. The etymology is related to ‘to bow down timidly’.[34] Thus the term indicates one who is ‘made to be bowed by another’. The adjective „poor” is used as a substantive in our text. The Hebrew equivalent describes the position of inferiority in the presence of the one who demands an answer. Thus concretely the word means the hearer, the dependent. It expresses a relation of subjugation. The antonym points to one who is wrongly impoverished or dispossessed. When used economically, it denotes poverty. In the Pentateuch, it designates one without inheritance of one’s own (Exod 22,24; Lev 19,10; 23,22).

The nomadic and semi-nomadic mode of life in Israel prior to the conquest knew no sharp or rigid distinction between the rich and the poor. Members of the tribe had equal rights. On the other hand, the economic development of the monarchy created new classes and accented social distinctions. The fact that landowners, who alone had civil rights also functioned as judges, worsened the position of the poor. The prophets, therefore, took up the cause of the poor in the name of Yahweh. They accused the socially strong of oppressing the poor (Amos 2,7; 4,1; 5,11; 8,4 Micah 2,2). The tragedy of the exile led to a collective use of „I”, as it was applied to Jerusalem (Isa 54,11; cf. Isa 51,21; 49,13).

In the NT, the term πτωχός occurs 34x, ten of which are in Luke, where it is used, predominantly, in a social sense.[35] It is strange that it never appears in Acts. In Luke the poor refers to those who are open to God, those who most often respond to Jesus. The key to πτωχός is found in the Beatitudes (Luke 6,20-26), where blessings to the poor opens the sermon on the plain. Preaching good news to poor involves an announcement. It is an invitation. Anyone – the rich and the poor – who comes to Jesus receives the benefits he offers. Thus πτωχός in Luke 4,18 is not an exclusive reference to Israel in need but a soteriological generalization. However, the description of this sort of people – those who respond to God – as the ‘poor’ is adequate because it is the poor who sense their need and so respond most directly to Jesus. In the words of Bock,[36] “their material deprivation often translates into spiritual sensitivity, humility and responsiveness to God’s message of hope”. In Luke 7,22 the poor have good news preached to them. Thus the programme mapped out here in Luke 4,18 is realised in Luke 7,22. He uses Isa 61 to depict Jesus as the eschatological prophet who pronounces liberation from spiritual poverty.[37] This liberation embraces setting human beings free from all that oppresses them spiritually. Preaching good news to the poor means bringing them the “good news” that God has taken pity on them. Christ has come to free us from the blindness and oppression of sin, which is slavery imposed on us by evil. Jesus’ coming is to eliminate such forms of distress. His advent is redemptive, especially, spiritually.

Jesus has come ‘to proclaim release to captives’. This also has a prophetic focus. In the OT the anonymous prophet of the second Isaiah proclaims release to the exiles. But this has also spiritual overtones, since the OT viewed the exile as a result of sin (Deut 28-32; Pss 79,11; 126,1). The image is release from captivity. In Luke the significance includes release from sin and spiritual captivity.[38] The noun ‘prisoner’ is from the verb ‘to take captive, to make prisoner’. Another related etymology is ‘to take captive’ (Luke 21,24; Rom 7,23; 2Cor 10,5). In both OT and NT the term could mean ‘the prisoner of war,[39] a miserable person who stands in special need’ (Ps 79,11).[40] He is one, who is swallowed up by a terrible enemy (Luke 21,24; cf. Rev 13,10). The national exile made the captivity of Zion a destiny, which was particularly understood in religious terms (Ps 126,1). Historically in Isaiah, the terms ‘captives’ and the ‘oppressed’ were used for prisoners of war. Later, in the developed Jewish tradition they came to be applied as well to the enslaved or the exiled from God.[41] As a noun, it occurs only here in the NT. The expression κηρύξαι αἰχμαλώτοις ἄφεσιν is one of the tasks of the messenger (Isa 61,1). The term ἄφεσις means ‘to send off, to release someone from a legal relation such as office, marriage, obligation, debt, to cancel’.[42] In the sense of ‘to pardon’, it is constructed with the accusative of person and genitive of object. Here the meaning denotes cancellation of an obligation, a punishment or guilt.[43] In the sense of ‘to remit’, it takes the accusative of the object and dative of the person. In this case the sense is to release from captivity (Isa 61,1).[44] The noun ἄφεσις is used in the LXX to translate lbwoy ‘Jubilee’ (Lev 25,11) and so it is related to the Jubilee year.[45] It is used to translate rwrd ‘liberty’ (Exod 30,23). The noun also has the legal sense of ‘releasing someone from punishment. It means ‘forgiveness’ in Lev 16,26. In Lev 25,10 it denotes ‘release’. Josephus also uses it to designate ‘release’.[46] ἄφεσις is used in the LXX to translate two different Hebrew words ‘liberty’ (Isa 61,1c) and ‘free’ (Isa 58,6d). Although the terms are different in Hebrew, they are related in meaning. Luke brings in Isa 58,6d in place of Isa 61,1d in order to emphasise liberation.[47] In the text of Isaiah the term signifies liberty/freedom granted to captives/exiles. But in our text ἄφεσις denotes eschatological liberation. Jesus, depicted as the eschatological prophet, comes to announce and prepare the people for the final judgement. The nuance of forgiveness is also present. When sin is viewed as oppressive ἄφεσις can denote ‘forgiveness’.

In the NT, ἄφεσις occurs 17x, ten of which are in Luke-Acts, and generally means forgiveness.[48] In order for ἄφεσις to have the meaning of forgiveness, it must be collocated with „sins” and this is always the case in Luke-Acts (Luke 1,78; 24, 47; Acts 2,38; 10,43; 26,18), except in Luke 4,18, where it appears twice – liberty to captives and freedom to the oppressed. According to Albertz, in Luke 4, a;fesij denotes finding human who is lost.[49] In Luke physical healing is often followed by the proclamation of the word (Luke 13,10-21; 17,11-21). This indicates that Jesus liberates both the body and the soul.[50]

Here in our text we have a prophetic function, while setting at liberty the oppressed is a messianic function. In the NT Paul uses aivcmalw,toij to express a subjection to sin (2Tim 3,6). However, in second Timothy aivcmalwti,zontej (participle not noun) is used. Jesus in Luke 4,18 as the anointed prophet announces freedom and frees us from the captivity of sin and evil.

The coming of Christ is also for ‘recovery of sight to the blind’.  One might be inclined to see this phrase only in terms of the physical miracles performed by Jesus (Luke 7,22; 18,35-43; Cf. Luke 4,31-37.40-41). However, the imagery of light and darkness portray that the phrase has spiritual nuances as does the idea of seeing (Luke 1,77-80; 10,23-24; 18,41-43). And so the work envisaged is not merely physical but also spiritual. Giving recovery of sight to the blind and setting at liberty the oppressed are Messianic benefits.

The mission of Jesus is also ‘to set at liberty the oppressed’. A prophet proclaims the message of liberty for the oppressed but he does not bring it to pass. It is the liberator, the messiah who accomplishes what is announced by the prophet (Luke 3,15-18). This explains why Isa 58,6 is brought in by Luke. He inserts it to express the Messianic function. Jesus’ role, therefore, is not only prophetic but also messianic. Jesus is a prophet but even more. The healing by Jesus portray this deliverance and are related to his authority, an authority greater than prophetic one. In Luke 11,32-32 we have Jesus as one greater than Solomon and Jonah. Luke 18,38-39 describes Jesus as the Son of David who heals. In Luke 19,37-38 God is praised for his mighty works through Jesus who enters like a king. Bock[51] notes that Jesus will do what Israel is accused of failing to do in Isa 58. He will meet the needs of those who need God and injustice will be reversed.

In the next saying, ‘to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord’, Luke returns to Isa 61. Here we have the Jubilee year imagery. Jesus’ ultimate role is not just to proclaim deliverance, he also brings about this release. Therefore, he is both the eschatological prophet and the Messiah. As the prophet he proclaims release and as the Messiah works out release. The wordplay on the term δεκτός has been noted. In the NT δεκτός appears four times (Luke 4,19.24; Acts 10,35; 2Cor 6,2; Phil 4,18). It is used often with reference to its meaning in the LXX. In the Greek Oxyrhynchus 1,5 of Jesus parable we have[52] ‘A prophet is not accepted in his own country and a physician works no cures on those who know him’. The double sense of δεκτός comes out clearly in the above citation. It is in this sense that δεκτός in this verse is to be understood. Thus δεκτός here signifies acceptable to God and a source of blessing for humans. It signifies a year that is acceptable to God and of active blessing for men. Its sense here is favourable, salvific – favourable to God and salvific to man (Lev 23,2). As Luke shows in other places where he uses a similar term (Acts 14,3; 20,24.32), it portrays a message of grace. Here Jesus declares the acceptable year of the Lord. However, he is not acceptable to the crowd. Jesus’ ministry is only acceptable to God provided he does not limit his words and deeds to his own people who because of his limitless mission will find neither him nor his words acceptable. In Acts 10,35-36 God accepts all who come to him through Jesus.

Isa 61 as noted above is related to the Jubilee year (Lev 25). Every fiftieth year, Israel was to declare a “year of liberty” marked by four types of release.[53] This resembles the earlier laws concerning the Sabbath year to be observed every seven years (Exod 21,2-6; 23,10-11; Deut 15,1-18). The Jubilee year law stipulated that any of the ancestral lands that had been sold out of financial necessity would be returned to those to whom God had originally allotted them when Israel entered the land. The image of release derived from Jubilee underscores restoration, beginning, recognition of the sovereignty of Yahweh and the conviction that social and economic life should reflect God’s reign.

The release, which Jesus announces, is reminiscent of the Jubilee year. However, there is a big difference between the two. Instead of the imagery of the Jubilee, of a royal decree of amnesty, of rest and of liberty, we find Isa 61 and Isa 58 (as cited in Luke 4,18-19) linked, not to recurring human political and economic activity, but to the inaugural celebration of God’s reign. Jesus announces something completely new. He comes to announce the fullness of time, to preach good news to the poor, to bring spiritual release to captives.


The release inherent in the text of Isaiah is applicable to Jesus but in a non-literal sense. Christ worked miracles to release the people from suffering and to demonstrate that he had a God-given mission to bring everyone eternal redemption. Jesus’ presence is a direct fulfilment of Isa 61,1-2 and Isa 58,6. Thus Luke has deliberately put together these two citations to convey his theological message.[54] Through the combination of these OT citations he declares Jesus to be an eschatological prophet and Messiah. Thus the quotations identify who Jesus is and what his mission is all about. Jesus is God’s anointed one. God who saved his people in the OT continues to do so in the NT. Anointed by the Spirit he comes as the eschatological prophet to preach good news to his people and as Messiah to set his people free. The Scriptures have been fulfilled in his person and the last days have begun. This is the acceptable time and this is the time of salvation (2Cor 6,2).



[1] C. PERROT, “Luc 4,16-30 et la lecture biblique de l’ancienne synagogue”, RSR 47

(1973) 329.

2 S. H. RINGE, Luke, Louisville 1995, 67.

3 C. PERROT, 344.

4 C. PERROT, 334.

5 C. PERROT, 333.

6 C. PERROT, 335.

7 G. MANGATT, “The Acceptable Year of the Lord Luke 4,16-30”, Bible Bhashyam 9 (1983) 182.

8 D. L. BOCK, Luke 1,1-9,50, Grand Rapids, Michigan 1994, 406. “There is nothing inherently messianic in the subsequent explanation of the OT texts. So it is true that the prophetic element exists in the passage and is a significant part of the picture of Jesus’ ministry. In fact it is likely that the audience in the synagogue saw nothing more here than a prophetic eschatological claim”.

9 R. KOCH, “Le Christ et l’Esprit du Seigneur selon Luc 4,18-19”, NRT 115 (1993) 878.

10 Luke 4,; 6,6; 13,10; Mark 1,21.23.29; 3,1; 6,2.

11 I. H. MARSHALL, The Gospel of Luke, Grand Rapids, Michigan 1978, 181.

12 Luke 4,31-37; 6,1-5; 6,6-11’ 13,10-17; 14,1-6.

13 F. JOSEPHUS (Ant 16,2,43). Here he describes what happens in the synagogue on a Sabbath, “And the seventh day we set apart from labour; it is dedicated to the learning of our customs and laws, we thinking it proper to reflect on them as well as on any good thing else, in order to avoid sin”.

14 The Shema‘ is the public confession of the Jewish faith as contained in Deut 6,4-9.

15 The Tephillah is the private entrance prayer.

16 P. BILLERBECK, “Ein Syngogengottesdienst in Jesu Tagen”, ZNW 55 (1964) 155. “Im einzelnen ist folgendes zu bemerken. Der Lektor und der Dolmetscher kamen abwechselnd zu Worte. Sobald der Lektor einen Vers hebra?isch vorgelesen hatte, liess der Dolmetsch sofort die arama?ische Übersetzung folgen”.

17 I. H. MARSHALL, The Gospel of Luke, 181.

18 C. PERROT, 329; S. H. RINGE, Luke (Louisville 1995), 67, offers his own suggestion saying that eu-ren may imply that Jesus looked for a passage that had been assigned to him to read, or that he selected it himself. In my view, the verb eu-ren indicates that Jesus sought out this passage because he wanted to use it.

19 The Qaddish is the Jewish doxology par excellence. It goes thus, ‘Praised be the Lord who is to be praised forever and ever’ and the people respond, ‘May his great name be praised forever and unto all eternity’. Cf. W. S. GREEN, Approaches to Ancient Judaism, California 1983, 1.

20 P. BILLERBECK, “Ein Syngogengottesdienst in Jesu Tagen”, ZNW 55 (1964) 145.

21 L. CROCKETT, “Luke 4,25-27 and Jewish-Gentile Relations in Luke-Acts”, JBL 88

(1969) 27. Crockett underlines that majority of scholars such as Billerbeck, Schmid, Manson and Plummer indicate that the reader had a more free hand in choosing the reading and so Jesus looked for what he wanted and found it. This view is quite obvious from the meaning of the verb eu-ren.

22 L. CROCKETT, 25.

23 D. L. BOCK, Luke 1,1-9,50, 410.

24 The chronology of Luke 3,1 suggests that Jesus’ ministry began around the above date.

25 L. CROCKETT, 26.

26 F. HESSE, “Chrio”, TDNT IX, 500.

27 D. SÄNGER, “Chrio”, EDNT III, 487.

28 R. FABRIS, “Lo Spirito Santo sul Messia”, Parola spirito e vita 4 (1981) 107.

29 The passion of Jesus is predicted three times, Jesus’ reign over the house of David is mentioned three times in the infancy narrative, In Acts the conversion experience of Paul is narrated three times.

30 Luke 4,24; 7,16.39; 9,8.19; 13,33; 24,19; Acts 3,22; 7,37.52 Cf. Deut 18,18.

31 H. KRÄMER, “Profetes”, TDNT VI, 783.

32 J. N. ALETTI, “Jesus a Nazareth (Lc 4,16-30) Prophe,tie Écriture et Typologie”, LeDiv 123.2 (1985) 447.

33 Cf. Luke 14,13.21; 16,20.22; 18,22; 19,8; 21,3.

34 F. HAUCK, “Ptochos”, TDNT VI, 886.

35 R. ALBERTZ, “Die Antrittspredigt Jesu im Lukasevangelium auf ihrem alttestamentlichen Hintergrund”, ZNW 74 (1983) 198.

36 D. L. BOCK, Luke 1,1-9,50, 408.

37 R. KOCH, “Le Christ et l’Esprit du Seigneur selon Luc 4,18-19”, NRT 115 (1993) 883.

38 Cf. Luke 1,77; 7,47; 24,47; Acts 2,38; 5,31; 10,43; 13,38; 26,18.

39 R. ALBERTZ, 199. In Luke 4,16-30 the reference is to those enslaved by sin and evil.

40 G. KITTEL, “Aichmalotos”, TDNT I, 196.

41 J. SCHUBERT, “Jesus as Prophet”, BiTod 35 (1997) 346.

42 R. BULTMANN, “Afesis”, TDNT I, 509.

43 W. BAUER, A Greek – English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early

Christian Literature, Chicago – London 1984, 125.

44 F. JOSEPHUS (Ant 12,40; 17,185).

45 Cf. Lev 25,8.30-33.40-43.47-55; 27,23-24.

46 F. JOSEPHUS (Ant: 2,67; 12,40; 17,185).

47 R. O’TOOLE, “Does Luke Also Portray Jesus As the Christ in Luke 4,16-30?”, Bib 76 (1995) 508.

48 Cf. Luke 1,77; 3,3; 24,47; Acts 2,38; 5,31; 10,43; 13,38; 26,18; Matt 26,28; Mark 1,4; 3,29.

49 R. ALBERTZ, 185.

50 B. RINALDI, “Proclamazione ai prigionieri la liberazione (Lc 4,18)”, BibOr 18 (1976) 245.

51 D. L. BOCK, Luke 1,1-9,50, 410.

52 J. BAJARD, A Greek – English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, Chicago – London 1984, 170.

53 a) The return of all property b) The release of all Israelite slaves c) The cancellation of debts d) The land lies fallow.

54 P. D. MILLER, “Luke 4,16-30”, Interp 29 (1975) 418.


Tekst programowy dwudzieła Łukasza (Łk – Dz) zawiera cytat Iz 61,1-2; 58,6, którego funkcja związana jest z określeniem zbawczej misji Jezusa. Aby dokładnie ją określić, należy zbadać najpierw historyczne tło opowiadania o wystąpieniu Jezusa w synagodze w Nazarecie (część pierwsza artykułu), a następnie określić rolę siedliska życiowego (Sitz im Leben) omawianej perykopy (część druga). Dopiero na tak zakreślonym polu można przystąpić do szczegółowej analizy egzegetycznej i interpretacji teologicznej cytatu Izajasza. Cztery bezokoliczniki w nim zawarte kreślą program publicznej działalności Jezusa, w której realizuje On swe posłannictwo. Przyszedł, aby zwiastować dobrą nowinę ubogim, więźniom głosić wolność, a niewidomym przejrzenie; aby wypuścić na wolność uciśnionych i aby ogłaszać rok łaski od Pana. Aż trzy spośród czterech wymienionych czynności podkreślają zbawcze znaczenie profetycznego słowa Jezusa: euvaggeli,sasqai ptwcoi/j, khru,xai aivcmalw,toij a;fesin, khru,xai evniauto.n kuri,ou dekto,n; jedna zaś odnosi się do zbawczego wymiaru czynów – avpostei/lai teqrausme,nouj evn avfe,sei. Głoszenie dopełnia Łukaszowy portret Jezusa jako proroka. W samym złożeniu dwóch cytatów (Iz 61,1-2 i 58,6) widoczna jest ręka redaktora ewangelii. Lektura parashot była bowiem lekturą ciągłą, stąd zmiany kolejności wierszy i ich kompozycja w Łk 4,18-19 ujawnia myśl teologiczną autora. Zestawienie to prezentuje tożsamość Jezusa jako proroka czasów ostatecznych i wskazuje na Jego misję. W Nim wypełniają się proroctwa Starego Przymierza i przez Niego Bóg kontynuuje zbawcze dzieło wobec swego ludu.

„Function of Isa 61,1-2 and 58,6 in Luke’s Programmatic Passage (Lk 4,16-30)”, The Polish Journal of Biblical Research 3 (2002) 67-82; [współautor: V. Onwukeme].